The mobile phone and other portable digital devices are supposed to be objects that enhance our communicative abilities. However, I think we have become the subject of their idolizing and addictive, controlling sway. Are we becoming zombies and slaves to our creation? The created has become the master of the creator; the invented has become the chief of the inventor. Does your mobile or digital device distract you from studying or working? Are your eyes continually glued to your phone or tablet rummaging for notifications and messages every time? Do people around you often complain that you don’t create time and attention for them? Do you know you may be addicted to your mobile or digital device? The mobile-device-addiction-zombie-bug may have bitten you, and you may be turning and becoming a zombie yourself. Talk about the dawn of the walking dead, the herd of billions infected by the zombie scrolling syndrome (NB. The security company McAfee coined the phrase in 2016) —moaning and groaning with eyes half-closed as we shamble away to our own psycho-social demise.
Since inception, Tech devices such as smartphones, tablets, laptop, and Bluetooth earphones have become avid companions to their users. All these gadgets are carried throughout the day with us, and we are continually getting interrupted by them through their buzz, ping, and ring notifications, messages, and calls. At night, it does not get better; these gadgets are beside us while we sleep at night; that is, if we sleep at all because our eyes are steadily glued on it “liking” and “getting liked,” “viewing” and “getting viewed” on Social Media. We have become prisoners to the neuro-chemical slave driver—dopamine (i.e., the organic chemical molecule of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families behind all our inner cravings—e.g., love, lust, sex life, motivation, attention, addictions (e.g., food, gambling, alcoholism, smoking, etc.)). The fixation is real and dangerous. We even operate them during our family and individual mealtimes, while driving, while walking on the street, etc. People are so addicted to their screens that life is literally passing them by without them noticing. It is almost as if we are unable to function without them. We are in a critical time in our existence as human beings, and we need to address what I now daub as the mobileholics-syndrome.
So, why do we permit ourselves to be controlled by these digital devices? The simple answer to this is dopamine. Dopamine is addiction. The Dictionary does some justice in cluing us into what addiction means—it is the state of being enslaved to a habit or practice or to something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming, as narcotics, to such an extent that its cessation causes severe trauma. Addiction to these digital devices comes at various levels—some cases are more severe than others. However, at a basic level, we are all becoming hooked on them. One day, two days, … to twenty-one days, the scroll, scroll, scroll bug bites us daily, injecting the habit-forming virulent virus into the mainstream of our lives and reasoning logic—we become infected—we are dead to real life. We become mobile zombies as we shuffle away to our psycho-social and, sometimes, physical demise, oblivious of reality as we are now lost in virtual reality.
The truth is that today’s mobile technologies offer a vast array of functionalities that amuse the brain. Today’s mobile phone is a communication device, an entertainment center, an amusement epicenter, a games arcade, a bank, a journal, etc. All these functions make the mobile phone a “Brain in Wonderland” adventure that Alice could never match. The level of the thrill is vast and unreal. According to studies, there is a similarity between the way mice behave when expecting to receive treats and how we act when we are about to operate our mobiles because something in our brains compels us to answer to the demands of the mobiles even at the faintest notification. As we earlier stipulated, “Dopamine” is the scientific explanation for this behavior. Whenever we get a notification or a ‘like’ on one of our posts on one of our Social Media handles—Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.—we experience a rush of happiness caused by dopamine’s secretion—the happy hormone. It makes us feel good. With a daily supply of this kind of joy, we find ourselves wanting more and more of it. We lose touch with reality because we are engrossed in virtual reality. The addiction peaks whenever it has to do with self-expression and feedback from others. For instance, posting a picture on Facebook will require you to constantly check your phone for updates in the likes and comments section. Our addiction to mobile technologies and social media is sucking the very life out of us.
The validation, popularity, and respect we get on social media have become something we cannot do without. We begin to do more and more attention-seeking acts to get more attention and feel more of that rush. Many scenarios prevail about the digital addictions that we experience in our days. Husbands, not getting enough or any attention from their wives, embark on a hunt for approval from other women on their mobile devices in the social media realms. Women, not getting the love and attention from their husbands, begin to search for other men’s care. Feelings develop—infidelity brews—separation the aftermath as the divorce attorneys get richer. Husbands and wives, entrapped in their mobilehoic demise, neglect their children—not paying attention to them—they become mobileholics and iCrack-babies themselves. Teenagers go through so much to keep people entertained by dancing, making inappropriate jokes, and exposing their bodies on their digital devices. These teenagers become prey to sexual predators. On some occasions, they even become victims of kidnap, rape, torture, and even death. It is all a cry for attention! A ploy to get attention—whether positive or negative, to feed that dopamine craving. What are we really doing to ourselves as humans? We are digging a bottomless pit of many cycles of woes as we sacrifice the things that matter for the things that are fast-fleeting—slaves to our own creations.
“The difference between technology and slavery is that slaves are fully aware that they are not free.” — Nassim Nicholas Taleb.
5 Effects of Mobile Technology Addiction
The effects of mobile and digital addictions can be devastating. The consequences can span various areas of our lives. It could impact our productivity, health, relationships, psyche, and habits, to mention a few. For instance, when it comes to relationships, mobile technology addiction could erode trust in our relationships. It can make us lose sight of reality as we pursue virtual reality on our devices. I have heard of real-life scenarios where mobile addiction murdered trust in homes due to cases of infidelity. Our mobile devices harbor Social Media and other entertainment content, and some people in relationships are drawn away by their lust for other men and women and, as a result, cripple their homes through infidelity and extramarital affairs. Bonds that took years to build and cultivate—dead—because of their unbridled addictions in a matter of moments. Is it worth the Herculean load of harm that one would inflict on his/her relationships? I don’t think so. So, it is worth a rethink on how to break away from the addictive grasp of mobile and digital technology. Moderation is herewith of the essence.
Furthermore, I have seen and heard scenarios where little children become very aggressive at a very tender age because you took away their tablets or mobile device. That is all these kids know—a deluge of hours immersed in playing games on a mobile and digital tablet or other handheld technologies. A good thing could quickly become a grave disadvantage when it becomes an addiction if care is not taken. These children’s parents ignore the sum of hours these kids are spending on these devices, and they develop a severe and crippling addiction to their digital devices. At a young age, a child becomes an addict—and the fixation is real. They become belligerent when you tell them that they have had enough screen time on their devices. They throw a frenetic tantrum when you take away their gadgets. There are scenarios of people on the highways constantly fixated on their devices as they speed through the highways—a reckless endangerment of their lives and the lives of others. There are endless scenarios that are out there about the specific impact of mobile and digital devices. Let us now look at some of the effects of mobile and digital media addiction.
Do you ever have the feeling that the day feels shorter when compared to other days? Do you ever feel like you never have adequate time to finish anything that you are working on? Could it be because you may be constantly distracted by your mobile or digital device? If so, then it may be a good time to lay off your mobile device for a while and get down to the brass track of getting some work done. Research showed that young people spend “an average of five hours a day on their mobile devices—that’s roughly one-third of their total waking hours.” At this rate, the amount of time that people are wasting on their mobile devices is so staggering. At the rate of approximately five hours a day, you would be spending 35 hours (or 1 day 11 hours) a week; 140 hours (or 5 days 20 hours) a month; and 1680 hours (or 70 days) a year—wasted on your mobile digital device. At this rate, approximately 19.20% of a common year (i.e., 365 days) or 19.13% of a Leap Year is wasted on your mobile digital device. A staggering piece of data, right? You can say that again. These are hours that could be better spent elsewhere—maybe reading, working, interning, cooking, or exercising, to mention but a few. You can do many more productive activities during these times. Be a master of controlling your time—don’t waste away your life being a slave to your time-consuming mobile and digital technology.
Many people find themselves spending their night hours browsing through their phones for news or exciting content they missed during the day. Because of this addiction, people have become insomniacs—they find it difficult to sleep or stay asleep. The bright light exposure from mobile telephones passes a message to their body, making it very hard for them to sleep. Research proves that this addiction works like caffeine. Even the light emitted can defer sleep twice as much as caffeine will. According to Dr. Andrew Weil, “the blue light these devices emit can suppress the production of the sleep-regulating hormone melatonin, promoting insomnia.” Dr. Andrew Weil further establishes that this exposure to the blue light emitted from mobile devices “increases the risk of retinal damage and, possibly, age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in those over age 55. Blue light may also be linked to cataract formation, although this has not been proved.” Consider this a warning and start looking for a way to curb your enthusiasm towards the excessive use of your mobile devices.
#3. Relationship Variations
Personal relationships tend to suffer when people become engulfed in the falsities of the virtual macrocosm. The ideology behind mobile devices is to bring people closer to each other, but these days, it’s doing the opposite. These days, people in the guise of coming together are even more distant from each other. Have you ever entered a restaurant and seen a group of people together on a table in a supposed lunch or dinner outing? Often, if you take a cursory glance in their direction, most of the people have their faces buried in their mobile devices. The essence of the outing initially was to socialize with each other over lunch or dinner; however, the purpose is defeated if the reality on interpersonal face-to-face socialization is relegated to the side in preference to virtual interaction. This is a cultural variation or asocial behavior that we need to become cognizant of and start addressing them.
Another instance of its impact on relationships is the slow and gradual death of the time families devote to talking about how the day went. Consider the image above—the father is on his laptop, the mother on her tablet, and the child on his mobile device—all engrossed in virtual reality and the reality of being there in the moment crucified on the cross of time and space. This is the slow and gradual death of family time. Is the picture above your current situation? Are you carrying the cross of your mobile device—a culprit of the mobile and digital insanity—heading towards Golgotha to crucify your sanity? Today, couples are more interested in how many people liked their pictures on Instagram. The women, some married and some not, are checking out men that appeal to them and, on some occasions, reaching out to these men or vice versa. On the flip side, the men are checking out and at times reaching out to ladies to pursue digital infidelity, despite being married. Some people are so addicted to their digital devices that they rather spend time with their virtual friends. In so doing, they shield themselves from any form of intimacy with the real human spouse that they have at home. This could push the neglected spouse away to feel void of the stolen intimacy from elsewhere. In all, this is leading to the slow and fast accelerating death of marriage unions.
Overuse and addiction to mobile devices can entirely jeopardize our relationships with people. In some instances, parents get so engrossed in the virtual world that they neglect their children. How many parents reading this article can relate to the cartoon image above this paragraph? Your action of ignoring your child or children can lead them to become detached from you. It leads to them feeling unloved and uncared for, and the parent-progeny relationship bond becomes seared on the hot coals of mobile and digital device addiction. Mark it somewhere; if they don’t get the love they need from you, they will seek it out from anyone that pays attention to them. That is how children become victims of kidnap, rape, prostitution, social vices (e.g., smoking, drug use, alcohol use, gangsterism, etc.), and victims of child sexual predators. Children who are addicted to mobile and digital devices lose out when it comes to forming adequate social skills in knowing how to relate to their peers and adults—I can go on and on. Mobile and digital media addiction can distract us from living in the moment. It affects our concentration. This affects all age groups as they continuously miss out on the relationship with other people of their peers.
Is the man’s expression in the picture above your look when you lose your mobile phone or handheld digital device? Do you literally panic when you cannot find your device? Consider this hypothetical scenario—you forgot your mobile device at your friend’s house who lives 30-45 minutes away from you. He or she offers to drop it off for you in the morning since it is already almost midnight. However, you insist that you will drive that late to go pick it up, and you do. You could have Nomophobia. This kind of phobia is the fear of being without your cell phone. Cases of this disorder have unexpectedly skyrocketed within the span of a few years—trust me, it has. People with this phobia—nomophobics—do not feel secure around people. People with this phobia do not feel comfortable when other people have their phones. They prefer staying alone with their phones. Nomophobia is an ever-expanding psychological variation that a lot of people are suffering from. Such people may be in dire need of psychological therapy.
Do you become angry when you do not have your phone on your person? Do you become irate when you lose your mobile or digital device—to the point that you could tear the house apart until you find it? Do you create a tense environment for everyone else when you lose your phone? Or, do you experience a nervous breakdown when someone has your phone right there in front of you? Do you become excessively depressed when you lose your phone or when your phone gets damaged? So sad that you even feel this negative emotion of almost wanting to hurt yourself or others who cross your path at that very moment? Do you get violently irritable or a manic restlessness when you don’t have your mobile or digital device on your person? You scream at your spouse or kids, all because you cannot find your mobile or digital device. If the emotions—anger, tension, depression, irritability, restlessness—define you when you don’t have your mobile or digital device, then be sure that you are aggressively nomophobic and need a mobile or digital device detoxification or critical psychological intervention. You have become a chronic cerebral prisoner to your mobile or digital handheld device.
“Technology was supposed to be the help in life, instead it has become the major driving force behind life.” — Abhijit Naskar.
10 Tips to Prevent Mobile Addiction
Technology is upon us at warp speed, so fast that it will give the speedster, Barry Allen—The Flash, a run for his money. With the advance of technology also comes various variations and issues associated with it. Problems arising can span from psychological, social, physical reactions to the technological advent, to mention but a few. The community of human beings needs to start facing the realities of the variations that are arising. As technology advances, so should the knowledge and research concerning how to curb societal issues that may accompany the changes that are brewing with the world-changing rapidly from a bird’s and worm’s eye perspective. We have seen one of them via this article—Mobileholism—if you permit me to create a new word for the English Lexicon. So, how would I define “Mobileholism”? (NB. The word “Mobileholism” does not exist in the English dictionary yet; however, it has been coined due to the addiction to mobile and digital media).
What is Mobileholism? It is a chronic disorder characterized by dependence on mobile technology and others like it. It involves the repeated excessive use of mobile and digital technology. Upon reducing or the cessation of mobile and digital technology usage, there may be the development of withdrawal symptoms or Nomophobia. In advanced cases, Mobileholism can lead to negative psychological behaviors such as anger, tension, depression, irritability, and restlessness. It could sometimes lead to the display of careless psychosomatic tendencies that lead to sufferers recklessly endangering themselves and others via phubbing (i.e., to ignore (a person or one’s surroundings) when in a social situation by busying oneself with a phone or other mobile device). Advanced cases can also create an asocial state of mind while lost in a virtual state. Some people infected by this addiction have a decreased productivity status and sometimes a reduced ability to function socially and vocationally.
Various authorities from different fields of study (e.g., Psychology, Medicine, Sociology, Technology, etc.) suggest different measures to curb the negative impact of mobile and digital media addiction. There is a growing need for digital detoxification to break the increasing dependence on mobile and various digital technologies. Something good can become wrong if its use is not managed effectively. Here are some tips to prevent mobile and digital device addictions (NB. These suggestions are not expert psycho-social conjectures but advice on avenues to curb mobile and digital device addiction).
Tip #1. Self-Devoted Sunrise (S.D.S)
It would be best if you devoted the opening thirty minutes of your day to yourself. Your first activities at the inception of the day can help you shape how the rest of your day will pan out. Consider it as sowing the seeds that you would harvest throughout the day. Never commence your day by first checking your mobiles. Rule your mobile, don’t let your digital device rule you. Spend the beginning part of your day with calming, soothing, and soul-enriching activities—have a Self-Devoted-Sunrise (S.D.S). Usher yourself into soul-soothing and anti-stress tunes in the morning. Start your day listening to supplementing information—meditate, listen to an audiobook, or even reading a book.
Tip #2. Electronic Sundowns (E.S.)
In an article written by the Technology Reporter, Zoe Kleinman, of BBC News on August 31, 2015, she highlighted several prescriptions for curbing technology addiction that Dr. Nerina Ramlakhan stipulated about having “electronic sundowns.” In his explanation, he specifies the need to pull away from technology 30 minutes before going to bed at night. Many people can relate to the common habit of going to bed with their faces still buried into their mobile and digital tablet devices. He establishes that people should preferably read or listen to a book or refreshing music as they glide off to bed. Meditating and a positive reflection on all that has transpired throughout the day could also be soothing and relaxing. Do not lose your night rest because of your mobiles. Put your phone from your reach, especially while you’re in bed. As much as possible, don’t use your phone as an alternative alarm—invest in an alarm clock.
Tip #3. Stay Focused At Work (S.F.A.W.)
Work is supposed to be a time that we infuse our very best into the task at hand. Productivity is essential while engaged in your professional obligations. The goal should be maximum efficiency and effectiveness with limited variations. Staying focused is a quintessential part of becoming productive. However, with the advent of mobile and digital handheld technologies, we see that these devices could be very distracting. How many times have you been at a job, and you steadily take a cursory glance at your phone or tablet to see what is happening on your Social Media page? The constant stoppage of your work for such virtual frivolities is robbing you of your productive time. Five minutes here, ten to fifteen minutes here and there throughout your day quickly adds up to a lot of hours of wasted time. You could have spent these lost hours being more productive. Put your phone on silent while working to avoid distractions. The goal is to S.F.A.W.—Stay Focused At Work. So, eschew the distractions and get things done—remember, time lost can never be regained—it’s gone and gone forever.
Tip #4. Deliberate Structuring and Discipline (D.S.D.)
To eliminate mobile and digital technology addiction, you need to be deliberate in structuring and disciplining yourself when it comes to mobile or digital technology usage. Developing the ability to structure and discipline yourself will not be a cakewalk. However, when cultivated, it would be the catalyst that will catapult you to great heights. The purpose is not to wholly exclude the use of your device; however, there must be a deliberate plan about usage times and limits. The fact is that you may need your device for work; however, you need to establish time blocks for various activities on your mobile and digital device. It would be best if you established times when never to use your device. There is a difference between using your mobile and digital device for value-adding asset-building activities compared to non-value-adding activities such as continuous and sporadic surfing of the web or socializing on various social media networks. To achieve the goal of planned usage, it would be advisable to set duration limits on usage, mobile and digital activities limits, and develop a structured routine on when and how long you will access your mobile and digital devices and social media as well. D.S.D. will help you form a pattern that will balance the proper usage of your time. With the discipline that structuring brings comes freedom—it all starts with you.
Tip #5. Track Mobile Usage (T.M.U.)
Are you aware that “studies show that an average adult checks their phone 110 times a day—now that is a lot of time handling a digital device? That equates to once every 13 minutes and peaking in the evening to once every 6 seconds.” That is some staggering statistics. So, would you say that you really know how long you use your mobile or digital device on any given day? Be it a portable phone or a tablet device. Have you ever taken the time to track how much time you spend using these devices regularly? If you feel that you are part of the statistics of those that are excessively using these devices, it may not be a bad idea to know how many hours you are really investing daily on your mobile or digital device. Various applications are available out there that allow you to track your digital device usage and how applications you are spending the most time (e.g., BreakFree and Menthal). Some applications help you block sites that you wish to eschew (e.g., ColdTurkey and SelfControl). If you are not up for downloading these applications, many phones, such as Apple phones, come with standard application options that allow you to set a screen time usage reminder. The core message here is to find ways to curb your mobile enthusiasm and usage—adopt T.M.U. and learn.
Tip #6. Mobile and Technology Sabbatical (M.T.S.)
In the education industry, we hear about teachers, instructors, and professors taking sabbaticals (i.e., holidays, vacations, leaves). They take sabbaticals or leaves to enhance their teaching skills, restore their health and achieve state certification in a shortage area. Adopting such for those suffering from acute mobile and digital technology addiction is a proposal that you should never pass along. You may need to take some time off from your mobile or digital technology in other to restore your sanity to yourself. If you cannot completely divorce yourself from your device for extended periods of time because of work, you may want to consider an aggressive D.S.D. (Deliberate Structuring and Discipline) (Or Tip #4). You could also consider taking a social media sabbatical. This will help you in your recovery process.
Tip #7. Relaxation
The meditative relaxation technique of mindfulness can help you reduce mobile and digital device cravings. Mindfulness is a psychological technique in which one focuses one’s full attention only on the present, experiencing thoughts, feelings, and sensations but not judging them. In the easiest of terms, it is “the state of active, open attention on the present. It means living the moment and awakening to your current experience, rather than dwelling on past experiences or anticipating future experiences.” Mindfulness meditation is the foundation of the psychological technique, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. In this program, patients are taught “to acknowledge and accept their experiences rather than to modify or suppress them as they arise and the recognition of their impermanence.” This will allow you to “re-perceive” or ethically decide whether to indulge the craving; hence, you deliberately change how you relate to the yearning at that very moment. In so doing, you can channel your energies towards relaxing your mind. This process allows you to relax your mind—and teaches you to curb your excessive attention and yearning for your mobile or digital device. After all, is said and done, my admonition to you is—Relax.
Tip #8. Mobile Addiction Therapy (M.A.T.)
So far, Tips #1 to Tips #7 is geared towards assisting you in changing your behaviors. Behaviors, good or bad, are products of repetitive habits. What is learned can also be unlearned. However, if these tips are not helpful, you may be a victim of some severe mobile and digital technology addiction, and Mobile Addiction Therapy (M.A.T.) may be the way for you to go. M.A.T. could involve either Individual Therapy or Pharmacotherapy. In Individual Therapy, the victim could either undergo Cognitive-behavioral therapy or Motivational Interviewing. In Cognitive-behavioral treatment, the psychologist’s goal is to help the victim change their dysfunctional or abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors into healthy and positive ones. Motivational interviewing revolves around the victim. The psychologist seeks to sway them from their current state of reasoning to their future desired state. In Pharmacotherapy, in conjunction with psychotherapy, medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and psychostimulants can help treat mobile and digital device addictions. (NB. Pharmacotherapy may not always be the best path to go as it involves medicating the victim. The truth is that medications always come with some side effects. You can solve one problem; however, another predicament may sprout from the side effects of medicating the patient).1
Tip #9. Treatment Groups and Centers (T.G.C.)
If Tip #9 does not work for the mobile or digital device addict, then the next option may be seeking treatment from a group or seeking out a center. With the rising trend of this addiction, various groups and centers are springing up to help provide a social circle and group help in addressing these variations. It would be best if you did not fight the battle for mobile and digital addiction alone. Some of these groups and centers include, but not limited to the following: Internet and Tech Addiction Anonymous (ITAA); Restart Center; Morningside Recovery.1
Tip #10. Socialize More
As a society, we are quickly losing touch with face-to-face socializing. Have you ever gone to a social event and seen the faces of many attendees buried in the screens of their portable devices and digital media? We are fast losing touch with reality as we get ourselves lost in virtual reality. A social gathering should be a place of face-to-face interaction. Hence, don’t focus on your phone or digital device while you’re at a social function. Deliberately learn to disconnect from virtual reality when you are in a social gathering with other people.
“We all need a technological detox; we need to throw away our phones and computers instead of using them as our pseudo-defense system for anything that comes our way. We need to be bored and not have anything to use to shield the boredom away from us. We need to be lonely and see what it is we really feel when we are. If we continue to distract ourselves so we never have to face the realities in front of us, when the time comes, and you are faced with something bigger than what your phone, food, or friends can fix, you will be in big trouble.” — Evan Sutter.
In summary, the debate goes on and on concerning the behavior around technology usage. Some people will argue that usage of mobile and digital devices should not matter. It solves the problem of communication and networking fast. Despite having some very substantial benefits; however, a good thing can quickly become bad if abused. It would be myopic of us not to look at the disadvantages of excessive usage. Some of the notable effects of mobile and digital device addiction, as we have seen, include its time-consuming nature; users can suffer insomnia; it can impact relationships; addicts can suffer from Nomophobia, and victims could become aggressive.
We have looked at several tips on how to change our behaviors when it comes to mobile and digital technology use. Tips #1 to #7 are personal ways to combat addiction to mobile and digital devices. The goal is to change the addiction habit using all these first 7 tips. If this is not happening, the best bet would be to seek personal one-on-one intervention and therapy (e.g., Tip #8). If going solo on the journey is not your forte, then think of various group therapy avenues that suit you and embark on that journey with others’ help and support (e.g., Tip #9). Finally, the principal goal of this article is to get people talking to one another face-to-face. This is an art that is quickly dying, and it needs to be revived—ASAP.
You can be free from this addiction. It would be best if you made an active attempt to break the habit that you have formed. It will be a difficult journey; however, you must believe that you can do so, and you will see it materialize in your life. Always remember that your freedom from your mobile and digital device addiction is a state of mind. It is a state of mind that has been built via repetition. Understand the effects of this addiction that is stealing away moments from your life. Adopt the tips above to free yourself from this maladaptive habit. Try each tip—try them repetitively to restructure your mindset. Change the state of your mind. Don’t be a prisoner of your mobile and digital device—break the chains of addiction that hold you down. Don’t let it master you and your will. Rather, free yourself from its hardened clutch on your will and become its master today.
- PsychGuides.com. (2018). Treatment for addiction to smartphones. Retrieved from https://www.psychguides.com/guides/treatment-for-addiction-to-smartphones/